The Day – March 5

The Day – March 5

Holidays and observances

The Day – USA: March 5

National Absinthe Day
National Cheese Doodle Day
National Multiple Personality Day
Benjamin Harrison Day
National Courageous Follower Day
National Holy Experiment Day
National Hug a GI Day
International GM’s Day
International Scrapbooking Industry Day
National March Forth
National Dance the Waltz DayNational Poundcake Day
National Snack Day
National Old Inauguration Day
National Toy Soldier Day

The Day in US History: March 5

The Boston Massacre

British soldiers shooting into a crowd
The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street Boston on March 5th 1770 by a Party of the 29th Regt.,”
Paul Revere, engraver, Boston, Massachusetts, 1770.
Prints & Photographs Division

Late in the afternoon of March 5, 1770, British sentries guarding the Boston Customs House shot into a crowd of civilians killing three and injuring eight others, two of them mortally. Surrounded by jeering Bostonians slinging hard-packed snowballs, the small group of soldiers lost control when one of their number was struck. They fired despite explicit orders to the contrary.

African-American sailor Crispus Attucks was the first to fall. Attucks’ past remains mysterious, but he likely escaped slavery around 1750 and spent the next twenty years working whaling ships. The only victim of the Boston Massacre whose name became widely known, Crispus Attucks was memorialized as the first hero of the American Revolution.

Crispus Attucks shot by British troops
Christopher [sic] Attucks, the First to Shed Blood and That His Own for American Independence [detail of Afro-American Monument],
color lithograph, Goes Lithograph Company, 1897.
The Booker T. Washington Era in African American Odyssey

The Boston Massacre reflected growing tension between Great Britain and its American colonies. Burdened by debt accumulated during the French and Indian War, the British government attempted to exercise greater control over its American colonies while simultaneously increasing revenues. Beginning in 1764, a series of acts and proclamations limited westward expansion, created new levels of British bureaucracy on American soil, and raised taxes. The Stamp Act, considered particularly egregious by the colonists, levied a duty on all paper documents. Everything from playing cards and newspapers to wills and bills of sale carried this additional tax.

Although the British soldiers clearly were provoked, the Boston Massacre helped galvanize Boston and the colonies against the mother country. Samuel Adams, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, played a leading role in framing the March 5 incident as a battle for American liberty. By transforming the dead rioters into martyrs for liberty, Sam Adams secured removal of British troops from Boston. Interestingly, Adams’ second cousin, patriot and future president John Adams, defended the soldiers at their trial.

In the nineteenth century, Crispus Attucks served as an important symbol of the patriotism and military valor of the African-American people. “When in 1776 the Negro was asked to decide between British oppression and American independence,” renowned educator Booker T. Washington observed in an 1898 address, “we find him choosing the better part and Crispus Attucks, a Negro, was the first to shed his blood on State street, Boston, that the white American might enjoy liberty forever, though his race remained in slavery.” Considering his probable status as an escaped slave, Attucks risked personal liberty as well as his life by participating in the demonstration.

Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
photograph of a painting by John Singleton Copley, circa 1900-1912.
Touring Turn-of-the-Century America: Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company, 1880-1920

Boston Massacre Monument
Boston Massacre Monument, Boston, Massachusetts, circa 1890-1906.
Touring Turn-of-the-Century America: Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company, 1880-1920

The Day in History – March 5-External Links

The Day’s Weather in History
The Day in Earthquake History
This Day in Naval History
The Day’s Document from the National Archives
The Day’s Events, Births & Deaths –Wikipedia
The Day in History by AP
On this Day -1950 to 2005 – The Day’s Story–BBC
On This Day: The New York Times
This Day in History –History.com
The Day in Canadian History – Canada Channel
History of Britain that took place On This Day
Russia in History –Russiapedia